Here you can read about technical information of physical properties of synthetical fibres, e.g. UV-resistance, resistance to abrasion…
Reaction of synthetic ropes under different conditions
Read more technical information of chemical properties of synthetic ropes, e.g. Melting temperature, resistance against acids, insulating properties...
The different construction possibilities of synthetic ropes.
Twisted / 3-strand / 4-strand
Twisted rope is still being put to many uses even today. Despite the improvements made by modern technology in manufacturing twisted rope, it nevertheless remains inferior to plaited rope when used under certain conditions.
Simple spliceability, low prices, well-grooved surfaces with a good grip will ensure that twisted rope will continue to hold its position in the market of the future. Sailors using twisted rope must, however, ensure that the built-in twist is not lost during use. The rope must not come undone, if however the ends come undone the rope can be repaired by manually twisting the individual strands and then twisting the strands together. This is especially important with smooth finishes, such as Polyester, Polyamide or Polypropylene.
Plaited / Braided Rope
Plaited ropes, on the other hand, can be engineered in a great many different ways. All plaited rope, beginning with the 3-plait, to the traditional 8-plait, 12-plait and 16-plait, as well as the elaborate joined core-cover construction in various materials, is constructed in such way so that it can be put to best use. As a result, splicing rope of this type creates no difficulties today.
Textile examinations and quality management
Specifications of the offered examinations.
Tensile strength up to 25t
Breaking strength using winches, terminals, stoppers, splices, Knots, buffers, thimbles, hooks, rolls, end connections, cell walls, adhesions, compression joints…
Rope's grip factor
Bending fatique (- buckling tests)
Creep behaviour of fibres and ropes
Dynamic endurance tests
Fineness determination of yarns, twines etc. DIN 53830 : 1981-05
Maximum tensile force and -elongation of twine sections DIN EN ISO 2062 : 2010-04
Maximum tensile force and -elongation of staple fibres DIN EN ISO 5079 : 1996-02
Rotation of yarns and twines DIN EN ISO 2061 : 2010-12
Types of yarns (staple fibre yarns, filament yarns)
Burning behaviour: construction materials and components DIN 4102-1 B2 : 1998-05 *
Fire classification, ranking, classification
Discharging according to gray scale for assessment of change in colour DIN EN 20105-A02 : 1994-10
Certifications according to
Certification in conjuction with CE-label
Usage property testing
Fastness to light (Xenotest)
Fastness to washing
Determination of water absorption
Colour fastness identification
Light fastness DIN EN ISO 105-B02 : 2009-10
Solvents fastness DIN EN ISO 105-X05 : 1997-05
Acid fastness DIN EN ISO 105-E05 : 2010-12
Perspiration fastness (alkali and acidly) DIN EN ISO 105-E04 : 2009-07
Seawater fastness DIN EN ISO 105-E02 : 2009-10
Water fastness DIN EN ISO 105-E01 : 2010-08
Fibrous material proof
Fluorocarbon proof, qualitative (Teflon etc.)
Odour of materials of car-interior VDA 270 : 1992-10
Qualitative fibre analysis:
Size substance / Avivage substance (y/n)
Chemical analysis (forbidden substances, PCBs, formaldehyde, heavy metals)
Definitions about manufacturing of ropes, cords and lines.
Working stretch is the elongation of a rope at 30% of its breaking load.
The unique LIROS pre-stretch system, calibrated under exacting temperature and tension conditions, is designed to minimize stretch in all ropes.
LIROS Coating System
The LIROS LCS process improves resistance to abrasion, and protects against UV damage - even in the latest materials - by as much as 50%.
LIROS Dry Rope System
LIROS DRS is the durable water-repellent coating of technical ropes.
All values for breaking loads and elongation are determined linearly under laboratory conditions in accordance with DIN EN ISO 2307. These values may vary for example caused by dynamic and static stress, UV-stress, temperature fluctuations, moisture, dirt, ageing and storage.
The rope weight refers to dry, brand-new ropes. Due to fluctuations in humidity, contact with water and possible contamination the weight may vary depending on their type.
There will be no liability for damages to ropes or caused by ropes, resulting from one or more application mistakes.
The average work load should be about 30% of the breaking load, a previously defined maximum work load of 50% may not be exceeded.
A knot in the rope reduces the breaking load of the rope by up to 70% depending on material and knots used.
A non-destructive determination of the breaking load is not possible.
If there is any doubt about the application or durability of the rope, contact a qualified person or the manufacturer of the rope.
New ropes are delivered in a number of ways including on a spool, hank, coil, reel or loose in boxes. When unrolling the rope length make sure there are no kinks and loops appearing whilst unwinding the rope.
Only a technically professional treatment of the rope ensures long-term safety and the rope's practical value.
Incorrect handling may cause the rope to be twisted, stranded ropes may be twisted or untwisted and braided ropes may lose their torque free construction. This may lead to the destruction of the rope and breaking load reduction.
Over time a rope is subjected to unavoidable ageing, affected by various factors and experiences a slow breaking load reduction.
Unused ropes should be stored in an appropriate manner (see storage instructions).
All contact points and abrasive surfaces if they are unavoidable, should have extremely smooth surfaces. If possible, the rope should be sheathed with additional protection.
When redirecting the rope, referring to the material, a D/d relation, where D is the diameter of the sheave and d the diameter of the rope, greater than 10 must be adhered to. High-tenacity fibres like Vectran® as well as Aramids should have a D/d relation of at least 15.
Chemical fibre ropes are damaged by UV-rays. This damage is dependent on material and intensity and causes brittle weak spots in the outer part of the rope.
Friction under tension or dynamic movements of the rope, for example running over sheaves may cause excessive heat generation. Therefore, it may be that the rope is damaged or even melted due to thermal overload.
Sharp edges or rough surfaces will damage the rope due to friction.
Abrasive foreign objects in the rope (sand, salt, dust, etc.) lead to higher inner abrasion.
Contact with chemicals of any kind (solid, fluid or gaseous) may have a negative impact on the rope and its characteristics.
When cleaning rope it is recommended to use lukewarm water and a PH-neutral soap.
If using mechanical cleaning (washing machine) make sure to untangle the rope and place in a cloth/textile bag. Don't wash loosely in a washing machine.
Avoid using softeners.
Leave to air dry.
Don't use external heat sources, this may cause rope damage.
Ropes must be checked regarding their technical condition, usability and possible damage before and during each use.
The evaluation and verification of fibre ropes in use mainly comprises the following:
• Fibre breakage and abrasion
• Fractures of whole strands
• Crushing and cutting
• Kinking and looping
• Technical state of the rope's end connections
• Damages caused by aggressive materials or intensive UV-irradiation
• Burns and melting points
• Rotting appearances (natural fibres only)
Every inspection should be documented in a “Rope inspection book".
During a visual inspection, the complete rope must be checked.
Splice points must be visually checked for changes.
Damage of the rope caused by heat can be discovered by a fused or very smooth surface.
Always store the ropes in a dry, well ventilated, cool and dark position. This ensures the longest possible product life.
Avoid heat, moisture and contact with potentially harmful substances (solid, fluid or gaseous).
Heavily soiled ropes must be cleaned and dried before storage.
Despite proper storage a reduction of the breaking load occurs because of polymer degradation. For this reason, after more than five years of storage the rope should be assessed/tested before use. Ropes which are over ten years old, should generally be replaced.
Storing rope in the form of a figure eight is advisable, laid as well as braided ropes can be stored without twist formation and this benefits drying out.
An overloaded rope has a great danger potential. Rope breakage can be life-threatening. Whipping effects of a breaking rope can threaten people in the rope's working environment. In case of breaking, the rope can whip back with considerable force and cause injuries.
Rope ends must always be attached safely. Used rope terminals must be technically correct and suitable for the planned load.
Never stand near or under lifted loads. In case of rope or sling breaking there is danger to life.
Yachting – recommended line diameters, mooring lines and usage recommendations
Recommended Line Diameters
Always choose the right stopper based on your line's diameter.
The wrong stopper size can damage your line.
Recommended Mooring Lines
Always secure any watercraft with at least four mooring lines.
Length of lines: Two lines at 1,5 x boat-length (m) and two lines at 1,0 x boat-length (m).
We recommend visual inspection of every line, before and after use.
Lines should be removed from use if the load-bearing portion shows evidence of damage, even through normal water and tear.
LIROS quality lines may be washed in mild detergent on the "gentle" or"delicate" cycle at 30°C, packed in a cotton bag.
Our recommendations for LIROS items reflect our many years' experience racing and cruising.